The 5 Key Principles of the SOLID Object Oriented Design Principle as Applied to Swiss Knives

A Swiss Knife is a multi tool pocket knife which was originated from Switzerland. A Swiss Knife has various different models like the Wenger Giant or the Victorinox Swisschamp XAVT and each model has its own set of different tool combinations. For designing a Swiss Knife, certain principles are applied which are known as the SOLID object-oriented design principles. A few of these can be applied on the design of a Swiss Knife while the others fail to do so - you will see the difference between knives that are specifically purposed for the occasion (see Cut it Fine), as opposed to a Swiss knife. Check them out as follows.

1. The Single Responsibility Principle

The Single Responsibility Principle also known as SRP is the first principle which basically states that, " Every object should have a single responsibility i.e. a single reason to change." This means that an object should be able to perform only one specific task and it should only be created for accomplishing one goal. This principle of design is not applicable to a Swiss Knife in its full context because although a Swiss Knife is only created for defense, it performs various tasks. It not only works as a knife, but also a screwdriver, can opener, scissor, flashlight, nail filer but also as the object that is used as a projectile.

2. Open Closed Principle

The OCP principle preaches that, "Objects should be open for extension, but closed for modification." This means that when a function has been finalized, it should not be changed later. You can add new functions to it without changing its existing internal function. This protects the existing function from breaking at the time of maintenance or additions to the device. Now when you look at a Swiss Knife, you will discover that it is closed for modification since there are no visible ways to open it, nor there are any screws to unscrew. But, when you look at the key ring of a Swiss knife which is a major feature to it, you can see that is has an extension to it. This shows that a Swiss knife is open for extensions and closed for modifications, hence this principle of design can be applied to it.

3. Liskov-Substitution Principle

The LSP principle states that, "You should be able to use any derived class in place of a parent class and it should behave in the same manner with no modification." This principle is almost same as the Open Closed Principle and is applicable to a Swiss Knife's design. This is because it is basically an extension of the Open Closed Principle and states that the new functions should not disrupt the functions of a parent function which was installed before it.

4. Interface Segregation Principle

"Clients should not be forced to depend on interfaces they do not use." This is what the principle of interface segregation delivers. This principle divides the functions into different groups of responsibility and assigns different tasks to them so that the user does not have to buy a large interface and use the functions that it does not need. The functionality of the object is clearly defined according to this principle of design. This principle of design fails to apply on a Swiss knife because it is multi-tasking tool which not only works as a knife but also a nail file, screwdriver and various other things.

5. Dependency Inversion Principle

What this principle of design says that is that," Classes should depend on abstractions for their dependencies." This principle promotes flexibility within a system by making sure that it does not only implement one task at a time. The two main dependencies that a Swiss knife has are its sharpeners and its operator. This principle promotes the object to function on abstractions rather than the concrete evidences. The Swiss knife does function on abstractions rather than the concrete details. It does not matter where your blade is being sharpened or who is using the knife, it could be a dog, a child, an adult or an old person and the knife will still perform its functions.Hence, this principle of design is applicable on a Swiss Knife.
By Albert

How to Deal With Incorrect Deliveries Of Items Purchased Online

Online shopping has become very popular all over the world. From software to kitchen faucets to clothes to shoes to furniture and so much more, you can practically order anything you need online - pay for it online and just wait for it to be delivered right to your doorstep.

There are some items that you can order today and you can expect them tomorrow or the day after. Others take weeks or even months to be delivered especially if you have purchased a made to order item. The excitement builds up as the delivery date comes close and you just can’t wait to see, touch and use your purchase! The excitement dies down the moment you realize that the item delivered to you is incorrect or has some missing details. True enough, this is the worst and most disappointing feeling any online shopper can ever experience - or maybe it comes next to dealing with a bogus seller.

Check Your Order Multiple Times Before Submitting

You’d think that in this modern world, it is easy to undo or redo when you incorrectly submitted an order. If you’re lucky, the online store you purchased from has customer service 24/7 that you can call. If not, then you’ll be stuck waiting for a response to your email. You might want to place another order but then you might end up with a double purchase. The best thing to do is once you are on the shopping cart and getting ready to pay, check your order multiple times. Once, twice or even thrice might not be enough because you might overlook some details.

While doing this, check on delivery details and all the product details too. Find out whether there’s a warranty or a return option. In many cases, companies offer return options but shipping fees are on you. So it is best to just make sure you have it right the first time. Amazon is the exception here though.

An Incorrect Delivery Has Arrived In Your Home

When it comes to gadgets, clothes or shoes in the wrong sizes or other appliances, returning your purchase is your best bet unless you’d settle with the wrong one you have already received. Try calling the customer service number or send an email to ensure that the process is done correctly. Yes, it might take a while for you to have your product shipped but you just have no choice for now. Sadly, you can’t even get a discount even if the incorrect delivery wasn’t your fault.

When it comes to furniture though, these are usually large and bulky so shipping fees can be quite costly. You may have gotten a discount or even free delivery but if you are returning the item, you might end up paying for the fee already. If you have a piece of wooden furniture that you got for cheap, say a shelf or a rack, then you can consider settling for what you received. What you can do though is pick up your miter saw and see how you can improve the product your received. For example, you ordered some floating shelves but unfortunately, its dimensions won’t fit or doesn’t look good in your bedroom. According to Straight Kerfs, using the Makita LS1221 miter saw will give you the opportunity to make adjustments to the shelf. Than sand it, repaint it and you already have a better shelf! Yes, it seems like an inconvenience but if you’re after saving money for shipping fees and you just can’t wait any longer for a replacement, repairing the item yourself is your best bet.

It is good to mention though that in most cases, there are always consumer rights. If the item you ordered online is far from what was advertised or if it’s damaged or faulty, you can always ask for a replacement or demand for a refund. Again, go through the details again and again prior to submitting your order to avoid any hassle.

By Albert

Why Do You Need to Segregate Your Trash at Home?

Garbage segregation is a much talked about subject and majority of the world agrees that this must be done religiously. However, there are some who still don’t because it requires a little bit of time and effort, and some just don’t realize the importance of segregation. If you truly care about the future of your children and the generations to come, change must happen now and you can begin with little things such as disposing your garbage properly. 
Cleaner Surroundings
Segregating trash means separating the recyclables from the non-recyclables, the biodegradable from the non-biodegradable. This isn’t difficult at all especially if you already have the knowledge needed in order to make it happen. When you separate your trash properly, you can expect cleaner surroundings because garbage collectors will have an easier time getting your trash and you will see how neater your trash area has become. You will no longer see those banana peels along with empty bags of chips or leftover food with paper and tissue. Everything will be more organized and simply cleaner—even if it’s trash!
Keeping Your Home Odor-Free
Trash is a very common and usual source of bad odor. If you have a pile of trash at home and you still haven’t taken it out because the garbage collectors are yet to come back until tomorrow, this can start emitting a foul odor very soon. Unless you have a garbage disposal unit installed in your sink, the worst odor will come from the leftover food that you threw in the trash! If you don’t have a garbage disposal yet, have one installed because it make segregation easier and it will also save you a lot of time and money by preventing blockages on the sink. A garbage disposal also effectively stores the waste which lessens or prevents odor. That saves you another call to the plumber! Other larger and harder leftovers and biodegradable materials though must not be thrown into the sink. You can create compost out of those instead. 
You Can Save or Earn Money
A bag of recyclables can be sold in recycling centers for some cents or even a couple of dollars. However, recyclables will not be accepted in centers if you don’t separate it from your other trash. You can earn even more when you have a creative side by creating new items through recyclables. You may also save money by reusing plastic bottles, paper bags and other metal and plastic material instead of having to buy each time. 
You Need to Follow the Law
If you’re feeling extra lazy today and you don’t want to separate the trash, think of it this way; if you don’t segregate, you are basically doing something that’s illegal. Most cities and countries all around the world have already passed laws about waste disposal and how it needs to be done. You just can’t throw your trash everywhere! 
This is for you anyway and for the future generation. Just segregate your trash and expect your kids, grandchildren and the generations that come after them reap the benefits of proper garbage management of today. 
By Albert

Fitness Tracker That Helps Increase Your Physical Activity

Fitness Tracker

You might think that it’s just a simple gadget that gives you numbers, but a fitness tracker is a personal accessory that encourages users to increase their physical activity in order to achieve their fitness goals, regardless of what they are.

It’s definitely not a meaningless unit, as the numbers you’re seeing every day can motivate you to start living a healthy life. Because it gives you an insight of how much activity you’re getting and not getting will push you further and start taking the stairs, rather than the elevator.

Is it the same as pedometers?

Fitness tracker units are cousins of pedometers. As you can read at Fitness Exact, the only difference is that they’re smarter, have more features and can offer you more accurate data.

Another great thing about them is that you can pair them with your web account to properly track your fitness data. All auxiliary devices that you can attach to this type of gadget can provide you better insight about your lifestyle. Are you getting enough sleep? What’s your heart rate during exercise? How about your blood pressure levels? These things will all be provided by this little wonder product.

If you're looking for high tech, this is a gadget for you. Once you’re convinced that this tracker can help you succeed in your fitness goals, you might be wondering about the best fitness tracker to buy. There are many brands and models available to you. When choosing the right unit, it’s a must that you opt for a model that can provide you the features that you need for your fitness goals.

More information at

By Albert

Why Choose Air Beds Over Regular Mattresses?

There is an ongoing battle between air mattresses and regular mattresses. While it seemed like a lost cause for air beds just a few years back, the situation has changed rapidly over the years and now air mattresses boast a large share of the bedding market. If you are in doubt too, consider the following points.
  • Air mattresses are easier to use and clean.
  • Air mattresses can be deflated and tucked away when not in use saving you a lot of space.
  • Multiuse air mattresses can serve as beds, sofas or loungers thus saving you a lot of money.
  • Air mattresses can be used outdoors which is not the case with regular mattresses.
  • Air mattresses are perfect for kids who tend to soil the beds.
  • By controlling the air pressure, a single air mattress can provide different levels of hardness.
  • Air mattresses can be used while camping or trekking for comfortable sleep.
  • Modern air mattresses can be inflated or deflated under a minute.
As you can see, the list of benefits that you can derive from an air mattress is quite long. You can use them for a variety of purposes and most of them cost less than regular mattresses. That is why air beds are the future.
By Albert

Royal Hotel Siberian Goose Down Comforter – The Best Comforter Money Can Buy

So you have already bought a great mattress and a very comfortable pillow but no sleeping arrangement is complete without a comforter isn’t it? And if you are looking for the best goose down comforter in the market, the Royal Hotel Siberian Goose Down Comforter made from 100% Egyptian cotton and hand harvested goose down from Siberia should be your automatic choice (it's also the choice here at Foam Nights).

This comforter is wholesome goodness crafted for connoisseurs of quality bedding like you. The solid white color gives it a touch of class and elegance. Some of its features are:

  • 100% Egypian hypoallergenic cotton cover.
  • Baffle box design to minimize movement while you sleep.
  • Keeps your body at a medium temperature so you can use it all year round.
  • For maximum warmth Side-Gusset is provided.
  • Soft and comfortable to use.
  • 500 thread count.
  • Available in King, Queen, California King and Full sizes.

As you can easily see, this comforter is luxury personified. The price of this comforter is on the higher side but such a piece of beauty cannot too cheap, isn’t it? So if you are looking for royal comfort inside your bedroom this is the comforter you should choose with your eyes closed.

More information:

By Albert

7 Amazing Features of High-Tech Toilets


Would you like to have a toilet that has a built-in dryer or deodorizer? How about toilets that can play music while they warm your feet?

If you do want those features, then you might want to consider getting high-tech toilets. They are crappers packed with technology that provides you a whole new level of comfort while evacuating.

What are the common features found in high-technology toilets?

With a special tank

Some toilets with a special tank will have the ability to wash your private parts using warm water. You can adjust their seat temperature and water temperature, and water pressure.

Plays music

This is one of the common features of high-tech toilets that you can never find in an ordinary commode. They have built-in speakers or SD card readers to play tunes for you each time you use them.

Led lights

They are great if you don’t like turning on your bathroom lights when you use your toilet at night.

Automatic lid

Some specialized toilets have lids that will open without human intervention each time you approach them. And when you walk away, they will flush on their own and the lid will close automatically.


This type of green toilet can turn your feces and urine into a fertilizing soil. Hence, the term composting toilet.

Health checks

If you are having health issues, you can opt for advanced toilets that can measure your blood sugar, blood pressure and even body fat and weight. These are all possible by linking them to your PC that tracks your data.

No toilet paper

One of the highlights of so-called Japanese toilets is the fact that you no longer need the use of toilet paper as they come with sanitizing nozzles.
These features of high-tech toilets are truly impressive. However, with their exorbitant price tags, they are just a pipe dream for most individuals. If you could afford to spend at least $5,000 for a toilet, then you might want to have them installed in your bathroom so you could have a comfortable time emptying your bowels.

More information at

By Albert

Induction Cooktop – What You Must Know of This Technology

The technology used by induction cooktop has been around for decades. Thanks to its demand, the prices for this technology went down significantly. You can also find quite a good selection. GE, Samsung and Viking are just three of the most popular manufacturers of induction ranges.

Energy efficient

An induction cooktop is no doubt energy efficient. You may even consider it as the iPad of your kitchen because of the technology it employs. Induction ranges rely on electromagnets to heat up steel or iron. The temperature rises easily which means that heating oil in a pan takes only a few seconds. Thus, first-time users must be familiar with how to control its heat levels. Nevertheless, it is more energy efficient than electric range as it can cook food faster and there’s a smaller amount of heat in the process.


If you were purchasing it a decade ago, then you would be paying more than $10,000. However, these days, you can already own an induction cooktop at $1,500 or less. In fact, LG brand has its own induction range for only $800.


One of the negative things about this type of cooking device is the actual cooking. Since it heats up faster, you need to understand the right setting that can give you sufficient amount of heat for the food you are cooking.

Another thing you might not like about it is that you need to use pans designed to transfer energy. Thus, you cannot use those lovely copper pans you received from your wedding.

By Albert

Kitchen Faucet Problems – Know When To Buy A New One

Almost all of us have had problems with kitchen faucets at some time or the other. There are two major types of problems that occur regularly when it comes to kitchen faucets. It is either a leak or a loss of water force/pressure but before you scurry off to buy a new unit, first find out what could be wrong with your existing faucet.

The leaks can be due to the fact that the faucet was not installed properly in the first place, especially if you did it yourself without any professional help. That said, it could also be due to damaged O-rings or other replaceable parts. It is important to identify the cause as often just the replacement of a part fixes the issue.

Loss of water pressure can be due to lime scaling and can be easily resolved by dismantling the faucet and cleaning its insides. If there is visible wear and tear or rust though, you are better off buying a new unit for your kitchen.

By Albert

Clean The Toughest Dirt With Heavy Duty Steam Cleaners

Cleaning your household can be cumbersome but not that difficult, unless you consider the floor and tables of your garage or workshop, your garden furniture, the grill of your barbeque etc. Those are the times when you really feel that an extra pair of hands may have been useful. Well, with the heavy duty steam cleaners, your job is now easier than it ever was.

The modern steam cleaners like the McCulloch MC-1275 Heavy-Duty Steam Cleaner (reviewed here) come with a variety of tools, cleaning heads and other features that effectively use the power of steam to clean away the toughest of dirt. They are very useful in cleaning glass surfaces, mirrors and the most hard to reach spots of your household.

So what are you waiting for? If you have been putting off the thorough cleaning of your house due to the lack of elbow grease, get one of these babies today.

More information at Steam Insider

By Albert

How Much Horsepower Do You Need In Your Garbage Disposer

This is an important question that you may not have ever given much thought to while buying a garbage disposal unit. Exactly how much horsepower do you need? Well, the answer lies in the amount of waste and the type of waste you want to dispose off on a regular basis.

If you are looking to dispose soft and semi-liquid food waste in a moderate amount, a 0.5 HP disposal unit should be more than sufficient. They need to have just one grinding stage and your job will be done.

For a little harder and little more waste, 0.51 to 0.99 HP disposal units are the way to go. There are many good models in the market that will dispose the waste perfectly.

If you are looking to process a large amount of waste everyday without clogging the unit or plan to process harder wastes like rice grains and bones, 1 HP disposal units will be best for you. They will provide you with the disposing power you need.
By Albert

About Shootout

Originally shootout was all about (you guessed it) basketball. However as time passed by it didn't get updated that frequently and in the end, well, hardly ever anymore.

My interests changed and these days I'm all about separating crap from quality, especially online. The spam I have seen over the years is just incredible. So, just for my and maybe also your reference I decided to publish some of my findings here. I hope it can be of help...

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